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Front Hum Neurosci. 2014 May 15;8:321. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00321. eCollection 2014.

What future research should bring to help resolving the debate about the efficacy of EEG-neurofeedback in children with ADHD.

Author information

1
Karakter University Centre for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Nijmegen, Netherlands ; Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Medical Centre Nijmegen, Netherlands ; Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Medical Centre Nijmegen, Netherlands.
2
Karakter University Centre for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Nijmegen, Netherlands ; Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Medical Centre Nijmegen, Netherlands ; Department of Psychiatry, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Medical Centre Nijmegen, Netherlands.
3
Karakter University Centre for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Nijmegen, Netherlands ; Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Medical Centre Nijmegen, Netherlands ; Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Medical Centre Nijmegen, Netherlands ; Department of Psychiatry, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Medical Centre Nijmegen, Netherlands.

Abstract

In recent years a rising amount of randomized controlled trials, reviews, and meta-analyses relating to the efficacy of electroencephalographic-neurofeedback (EEG-NF) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been published. Although clinical reports and open treatment studies suggest EEG-NF to be effective, double blind placebo-controlled studies as well as a rigorous meta-analysis failed to find support for the efficacy of EEG-NF. Since absence of evidence does not equate with evidence of absence, we will outline how future research might overcome the present methodological limitations. To provide conclusive evidence for the presence or absence of the efficacy of EEG-NF in the treatment of ADHD, there is a need to set up a well-designed study that ensures optimal implementation and embedding of the training, and possibly incorporates different forms of neurofeedback.

KEYWORDS:

EEG-neurofeedback (EEG-NF); attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); efficacy; methodology; non-pharmacological interventions

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