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Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2014 Sep;45:46-62. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.05.007. Epub 2014 May 21.

Oxidative & nitrosative stress in depression: why so much stress?

Author information

1
IMPACT Strategic Research Centre, School of Medicine, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia; Barwon Health, Geelong, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address: steven.moylan@deakin.edu.au.
2
IMPACT Strategic Research Centre, School of Medicine, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia; Florey Institute for Neuroscience and Mental Health University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia; School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Prahran, Victoria, Australia; University of Melbourne, Department of Psychiatry, Level 1 North, Main Block, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville 3052, Australia; Barwon Health, Geelong, Victoria, Australia; Orygen Youth Health Research Centre, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.
3
IMPACT Strategic Research Centre, School of Medicine, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia; Florey Institute for Neuroscience and Mental Health University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia; University of Melbourne, Department of Psychiatry, Level 1 North, Main Block, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville 3052, Australia.
4
IMPACT Strategic Research Centre, School of Medicine, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.
5
IMPACT Strategic Research Centre, School of Medicine, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia; University of Melbourne, Department of Psychiatry, Level 1 North, Main Block, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville 3052, Australia.
6
IMPACT Strategic Research Centre, School of Medicine, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia; School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Prahran, Victoria, Australia.
7
IMPACT Strategic Research Centre, School of Medicine, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia; Northwest Academic Centre, University of Melbourne, St. Albans, Victoria, Australia.
8
CRC Scotland & London, London, United Kingdom.
9
IMPACT Strategic Research Centre, School of Medicine, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia; Department of Psychiatry, Chulalongkorn University, Faculty of Medicine, Bangkok, Thailand; Department of Psychiatry, State University of Londrina, Londrina, Brazil.

Abstract

Many studies support a crucial role for oxidative & nitrosative stress (O&NS) in the pathophysiology of unipolar and bipolar depression. These disorders are characterized inter alia by lowered antioxidant defenses, including: lower levels of zinc, coenzyme Q10, vitamin E and glutathione; increased lipid peroxidation; damage to proteins, DNA and mitochondria; secondary autoimmune responses directed against redox modified nitrosylated proteins and oxidative specific epitopes. This review examines and details a model through which a complex series of environmental factors and biological pathways contribute to increased redox signaling and consequently increased O&NS in mood disorders. This multi-step process highlights the potential for future interventions that encompass a diverse range of environmental and molecular targets in the treatment of depression.

KEYWORDS:

Antioxidants; Autoimmune; Bipolar disorder; Depression; Inflammation; Oxidative & nitrosative stress

PMID:
24858007
DOI:
10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.05.007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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