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J Periodontol. 2014 Nov;85(11):1489-501. doi: 10.1902/jop.2014.140185. Epub 2014 May 26.

Association between metabolic syndrome and periodontal disease measures in postmenopausal women: the Buffalo OsteoPerio study.

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Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Health Professions, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY.



The objective of this study is to characterize the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and periodontitis in women, for which there is limited evidence.


Cross-sectional associations between MetS and periodontitis were examined in 657 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years enrolled in a periodontal disease study ancillary to the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Whole-mouth measures of alveolar crest height (ACH), clinical attachment level (CAL), probing depth (PD), gingival bleeding, and supragingival plaque and measures to define MetS using National Cholesterol Education Program criteria were from a clinical examination. Study outcomes were defined as: 1) mean ACH ≥3 mm, two sites ≥5 mm, or tooth loss to periodontitis; 2) ≥2 sites with CAL ≥6 mm and ≥1 site with PD ≥5 mm; 3) gingival bleeding at ≥50% of sites; and 4) supragingival plaque at ≥50% of sites. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).


In unadjusted analyses, MetS (prevalence: 25.6%) was significantly associated with supragingival plaque (OR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.22 to 2.50) and non-significantly associated with periodontitis defined by ACH (OR = 1.23; 95% CI: 0.81 to 1.85) and gingival bleeding (OR = 1.20; 95% CI: 0.81 to 1.77). Adjustment for age, smoking, and other confounders attenuated observed associations, though supragingival plaque remained significant (OR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.00 to 2.16; P = 0.049). MetS was not associated with periodontitis defined by CAL and PD.


A consistent association between MetS and measures of periodontitis was not seen in this cohort of postmenopausal women. An association between MetS and supragingival plaque requires further investigation.


Diabetes mellitus; gingivitis; metabolic syndrome X; obesity; periodontitis; postmenopause

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