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Int Braz J Urol. 2014 Mar-Apr;40(2):212-9. doi: 10.1590/S1677-5538.IBJU.2014.02.11.

The skin-to-calyx distance measured by renal ct scan and ultrasound.

Author information

1
Division of Urology, Hospital das Clinicas, University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
2
Section of Endourology, Hospital das Clinicas, University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
3
Division of Radiology, Hospital das Clinicas, University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
4
Division of Urology, University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

We developed a stereotactic device to guide the puncture for percutaneous nephrolithotripsy, which uses the distance from the target calyx to its perpendicular point on skin (SCD) to calculate the needle´s entry angle. This study seeks to validate the use of measurements obtained by ultrasound (US) and computerized tomography (CT) for needle´s entry angle calculation and to study factors that may interfere in this procedure.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Height, weight, abdominal circumference, CT of the urinary tract in dorsal decubitus (DD) and ventral decubitus (VD), and US of the kidneys in VD were obtained from thirty-five renal calculi patients. SCD obtained were compared and correlated with body-mass index (BMI).

RESULTS:

BMI was 28.66 ± 4.6 Kg/m2. SCD on CT in DD was 8.40 ± 2.06cm, in VD was 8.32 ± 1.95cm, in US was 6.74 ± 1.68cm. SCD measured by US and CT were statistically different (p < 0.001), whereas between CT in DD and VD were not. SCD of the lower calyx presented moderate correlation with BMI.

CONCLUSION:

SCD obtained by CT in ventral and dorsal decubitus may be used for calculation of the needle´s entry angle. SCD obtained by US cannot be used. A rule for the correlation between BMI and the SCD could not be determined.

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