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Expert Rev Vaccines. 2014 Jul;13(7):873-83. doi: 10.1586/14760584.2014.922416. Epub 2014 May 23.

Improving pandemic H5N1 influenza vaccines by combining different vaccine platforms.

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Emerging Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bldg 33, Room 3E13C.1, 33 North Drive, MSC 3203, Bethesda, MD 20892-3203, USA.


A variety of platforms are being explored for the development of vaccines for pandemic influenza. Observations that traditional inactivated subvirion vaccines and live-attenuated vaccines against H5 and some H7 influenza viruses were poorly immunogenic spurred efforts to evaluate new approaches, including whole virus vaccines, higher doses of antigen, addition of adjuvants and combinations of different vaccine modalities in heterologous prime-boost regimens to potentiate immune responses. Results from clinical trials of prime-boost regimens have been very promising. Further studies are needed to determine optimal combinations of platforms, intervals between doses of vaccines and the logistics of deployment in pre-pandemic and early pandemic settings.


influenza vaccine; pandemic influenza vaccine; prime boost

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