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Int J Stem Cells. 2009 May;2(1):28-34.

Role of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR)δ in Embryonic Stem Cell Proliferation.

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Department of Veterinary Physiology, Biotherapy Human Resources Center (BK21), College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea.


The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that belong to the nuclear receptor family. It is well known that PPARs function as regulators of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and glucose homeostasis, as well as influence cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. However, the role of the PPARs with regard to embryonic stem (ES) cells remains unknown. We will review the function of the PPARδ, one of the three PPAR isoforms, α, δ (also called β/δ), and γ, in ES cells and its role in embryo development. In addition, pluripotent mouse ES cells can be expanded in large numbers in vitro due to the process of symmetrical self-renewal. Here we describe how PPARδ sustains ES cell proliferation.


ES cells; High glucose; PPARδ; Proliferation


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