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Nature. 2014 Jun 26;510(7506):537-41. doi: 10.1038/nature13268. Epub 2014 May 18.

Decoding the regulatory landscape of medulloblastoma using DNA methylation sequencing.

Author information

1
1] Division of Molecular Genetics, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120, Germany [2].
2
1] Division of Pediatric Neurooncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120, Germany [2].
3
Division of Molecular Genetics, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120, Germany.
4
Division of Pediatric Neurooncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120, Germany.
5
Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Ihnestrasse 63-73, Berlin 14195, Germany.
6
Department of Pediatric Oncology, Hematology and Clinical Immunology, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Moorenstrasse 5, Düsseldorf 40225, Germany.
7
Department of Neuropathology, NN Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute, 4th Tverskaya-Yamskaya 16, Moscow 125047, Russia.
8
Tumor Initiation and Maintenance Program, National Cancer Institute (NCI)-Designated Cancer Center, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, 2880 Torrey Pines Scenic Drive, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.
9
1] Queensland Brain Institute, University of Queensland, QBI Building, St Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia [2] Department of Oncogenomics, AMC, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam 1105 AZ, the Netherlands.
10
Division of Theoretical Bioinformatics, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120, Germany.
11
1] Division of Molecular Genetics, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120, Germany [2] Division of Theoretical Bioinformatics, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120, Germany.
12
1] Division of Pediatric Neurooncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120, Germany [2] European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Meyerhofstrasse 1, Heidelberg 69117, Germany.
13
1] Division of Translational Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120, Germany [2] National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), Im Neuenheimer Feld 460, Heidelberg 69120, Germany.
14
Data Management Facility, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120, Germany.
15
Department of Oncogenomics, AMC, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam 1105 AZ, the Netherlands.
16
1] Department of Pediatric Oncology, Hematology & Immunology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Im Neuenheimer Feld 430, Heidelberg 69120, Germany [2] Clinical Cooperation Unit Pediatric Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120, Germany.
17
Genomics and Proteomics Core Facility, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120, Germany.
18
Department of Neuropathology, University of Bonn Medical Center, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, Bonn 53105, Germany.
19
Department of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, Hamburg 20246, Germany.
20
Cnopf'sche Kinderklinik, Nürnberg Children's Hospital, St.-Johannis-Mühlgasse 19, Nürnberg 90419, Germany.
21
1] Program in Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, The Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumour Research Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada [2] Division of Neurosurgery, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada [3] Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada.
22
1] Department of Neuropathology, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Moorenstrasse 5, Düsseldorf 40225, Germany [2] German Consortium for Translational Cancer Research (DKTK), German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120, Germany.
23
1] Division of Theoretical Bioinformatics, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120, Germany [2] Institute of Pharmacy and Molecular Biotechnology (IPMB), University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg 69120, Germany [3] Bioquant Center, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 267, Heidelberg 69120, Germany [4] Heidelberg Center for Personalised Oncology (DKFZ-HIPO), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120, Germany.
24
1] Department of Neuropathology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 220, Heidelberg 69120, Germany [2] Clinical Cooperation Unit Neuropathology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 220-221, Heidelberg, 69120 Germany.
25
1] Division of Pediatric Neurooncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120, Germany [2] Department of Pediatric Oncology, Hematology & Immunology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Im Neuenheimer Feld 430, Heidelberg 69120, Germany.
26
1] Division of Molecular Genetics, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120, Germany [2] Heidelberg Center for Personalised Oncology (DKFZ-HIPO), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120, Germany.

Abstract

Epigenetic alterations, that is, disruption of DNA methylation and chromatin architecture, are now acknowledged as a universal feature of tumorigenesis. Medulloblastoma, a clinically challenging, malignant childhood brain tumour, is no exception. Despite much progress from recent genomics studies, with recurrent changes identified in each of the four distinct tumour subgroups (WNT-pathway-activated, SHH-pathway-activated, and the less-well-characterized Group 3 and Group 4), many cases still lack an obvious genetic driver. Here we present whole-genome bisulphite-sequencing data from thirty-four human and five murine tumours plus eight human and three murine normal controls, augmented with matched whole-genome, RNA and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing data. This comprehensive data set allowed us to decipher several features underlying the interplay between the genome, epigenome and transcriptome, and its effects on medulloblastoma pathophysiology. Most notable were highly prevalent regions of hypomethylation correlating with increased gene expression, extending tens of kilobases downstream of transcription start sites. Focal regions of low methylation linked to transcription-factor-binding sites shed light on differential transcriptional networks between subgroups, whereas increased methylation due to re-normalization of repressed chromatin in DNA methylation valleys was positively correlated with gene expression. Large, partially methylated domains affecting up to one-third of the genome showed increased mutation rates and gene silencing in a subgroup-specific fashion. Epigenetic alterations also affected novel medulloblastoma candidate genes (for example, LIN28B), resulting in alternative promoter usage and/or differential messenger RNA/microRNA expression. Analysis of mouse medulloblastoma and precursor-cell methylation demonstrated a somatic origin for many alterations. Our data provide insights into the epigenetic regulation of transcription and genome organization in medulloblastoma pathogenesis, which are probably also of importance in a wider developmental and disease context.

PMID:
24847876
DOI:
10.1038/nature13268
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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