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J Biol Chem. 2014 Jun 27;289(26):18569-81. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M114.551804. Epub 2014 May 20.

Extracellular UDP-glucose activates P2Y14 Receptor and Induces Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) Tyr705 phosphorylation and binding to hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) promoter, stimulating hyaluronan synthesis of keratinocytes.

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From the Institutes of Biomedicine and
From the Institutes of Biomedicine and.
From the Institutes of Biomedicine and Dentistry, School of Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, P. O. Box 1627, FIN-70210 Kuopio, Finland.


Hyaluronan, a major matrix molecule in epidermis, is often increased by stimuli that enhance keratinocyte proliferation and migration. We found that small amounts of UDP-sugars were released from keratinocytes and that UDP-glucose (UDP-Glc) added into keratinocyte cultures induced a specific, rapid induction of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2), and an increase of hyaluronan synthesis. The up-regulation of HAS2 was associated with JAK2 and ERK1/2 activation, and specific Tyr(705) phosphorylation of transcription factor STAT3. Inhibition of JAK2, STAT3, or Gi-coupled receptors blocked the induction of HAS2 expression by UDP-Glc, the latter inhibitor suggesting that the signaling was triggered by the UDP-sugar receptor P2Y14. Chromatin immunoprecipitations demonstrated increased promoter binding of Tyr(P)(705)-STAT3 at the time of HAS2 induction. Interestingly, at the same time Ser(P)(727)-STAT3 binding to its response element regions in the HAS2 promoter was unchanged or decreased. UDP-Glc also stimulated keratinocyte migration, proliferation, and IL-8 expression, supporting a notion that UDP-Glc signals for epidermal inflammation, enhanced hyaluronan synthesis as an integral part of it.


Hyaluronan; Hyaluronate; Janus Kinase (JAK); Keratinocyte; P2Y14; Purinergic Receptor; STAT3; UDP-Glc

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