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J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 1989 Dec;9(5-6):435-55.

Time and dose-response study of the effects of vanadate on rats: morphological and biochemical changes in organs.

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Institute for Environmental Health Research, University of California, Davis 95616.


Vanadate at a dosage level of 0.9 mg V/kg per day produced acute toxic signs in rats when injected subcutaneously for 16 days. These signs were weakness, loss of appetite, dehydration, significant reduction in body weight, nose bleeding, and death. The pathological and biochemical changes were most severe in kidney tissue. The kidney lesions were bilateral and multifocal. At two days, degenerative and necrotic changes of the tubular and glomerular epithelium, thickening of glomerular membrane, vascular congestion, and edema were observed. At five days, proliferation of tubular epithelial and interstitial cells was observed. At 12 days, the cellular proliferation in both cortex and medulla was significantly greater. Fibrosis was observed at glomerular tuft, preglomeruli, pretubules, and interstitium (cortex and medulla). At 25 days, the collagen deposition reached the highest level in all regions, cellular proliferation decreased, and thickening of the arteriolar wall became prominent. The renal lesions were coupled with changes in the levels of protein, RNA, DNA, and hydroxyproline. At 40 days, the kidney showed signs of recovery. Blood urea nitrogen levels were significantly elevated at 2-25 days post-treatment. Stained tissue sections from liver, lung, heart, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, testes, and adrenal glands of the treated rats were examined microscopically and appeared normal. Biochemically, significant changes (p less than .05) in protein, RNA, DNA, and hydroxyproline were also observed in these organs. At lower dosage (0.6 mg V/kg per day for 16 days), similar but less severe pathological and biochemical changes in kidneys and other organs were observed. At 0.3 mg V/kg per day for 16 days, the changes in the tissues were detected only at the biochemical level. These results indicate that the toxic effects of vanadium are cumulative and that vanadium-produced fibrosis in tissues is dose-dependent.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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