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Cochlear Implants Int. 2014 Jul;15(4):230-40. doi: 10.1179/1754762814Y.0000000077. Epub 2014 May 20.

Correlation of neurocognitive processing subtypes with language performance in young children with cochlear implants.



Test data were used to explore the neurocognitive processing of a group of children with cochlear implants (CIs) whose language development is below expectations.


This cross-sectional study examines the relationship between neurocognitive processing, as assessed by the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition, and verbal language standard scores, assessed using either the Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language or the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals in 22 school-age children with CIs. Processing scores of CI recipients with language scores below expectations were compared to those of children meeting or exceeding language expectations. Multiple linear regression estimated the associations of simultaneous and sequential processing with language scores.


Though simultaneous processing scores between the two groups were similar, the mean sequential processing score (91.2) in the below expectations group (n = 13) was significantly lower (P = 0.002) than that of children (n = 9) meeting expectations (110.8). After adjusting for age at implantation, a 10-point higher sequential processing score was associated with a 7.4 higher language score (P = 0.027).


Simultaneous processing capacity was at least within the average range of cognitive performance, and was not associated with language performance in children with CIs. Conversely, reduced sequential processing capacity was significantly associated with lower language scores.


Neurocognitive skills, specifically cognitive sequencing, serial ordering, and auditory-verbal memory may be targets for therapeutic intervention. Intensive cognitive and educational habilitation and in milieu intervention may improve language learning in children with CIs.


Cochlear implants; Language development; Neurocognitive processing; Sequential processing; Simultaneous processing

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