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Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2014 Oct;21(19):11305-12. doi: 10.1007/s11356-014-3026-1. Epub 2014 May 20.

Biodegradation of heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide-contaminated soils by white-rot fungal inocula.

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Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS), Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya, 60111, Indonesia,


The ability of certain white-rot fungi (WRF) inocula to transform heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide and its application in artificially contaminated soil were investigated. Fungal inoculum of Pleurotus ostreatus eliminated approximately 89 % of heptachlor after 28 days of incubation, and chlordene was detected as the primary metabolite. The fungal inoculum of Pleurotus ostreatus had the highest ability to degrade heptachlor epoxide; approximately 32 % were degraded after 28 days of incubation, and heptachlor diol was detected as the metabolite product. Because Pleurotus ostreatus transformed heptachlor into a less toxic metabolite and could also effectively degrade heptachlor epoxide, it was then selected to be applied to artificially contaminated soil. The spent mushroom waste (SMW) of Pleurotus ostreatus degraded heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide by approximately 91 and 26 %, respectively, over 28 days. This finding indicated that Pleurotus ostreatus SMW could be used to bioremediate heptachlor- and heptachlor epoxide-contaminated environments.

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