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Alcohol. 2014 Aug;48(5):419-25. doi: 10.1016/j.alcohol.2013.12.007. Epub 2014 Apr 21.

Intravenous alcohol self-administration in the P rat.

Author information

1
Department of Psychology, Indiana University-Purdue University, 402 N. Blackford St. LD124, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.
2
Department of Psychology, Indiana University-Purdue University, 402 N. Blackford St. LD124, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA. Electronic address: cczachow@iupui.edu.

Abstract

Alcohol consumption produces a complex array of effects that can be divided into two types: the explicit pharmacological effects of ethanol (which can be temporally separate from time of intake) and the more temporally "relevant" effects (primarily olfactory and taste) that bridge the time from intake to onset of the pharmacological effects. Intravenous (IV) self-administration of ethanol limits the confounding "non-pharmacological" effects associated with oral consumption, allows for controlled and precise dosing, and bypasses first order absorption kinetics, allowing for more direct and better-controlled assessment of alcohol's effect on the brain. IV ethanol self-administration has been reliably demonstrated in mouse and human experimental models; however, models of IV self-administration have been historically problematic in the rat. An operant multiple-schedule study design was used to elucidate the role of each component of a compound IV-ethanol plus oral-sucrose reinforcer. Male alcohol-preferring P rats had free access to both food and water during all IV self-administration sessions. Animals were trained to press a lever for orally delivered 1% sucrose (1S) on a fixed ratio 4 schedule, and then surgically implanted with an indwelling jugular catheter. Animals were then trained to respond on a multiple FR4-FR4 schedule composed of alternating 2.5-min components across 30-min sessions. For the multiple schedule, two components were used: an oral 1S only and an oral 1S plus IV 20% ethanol (25 mg/kg/injection). Average total ethanol intake was 0.47 ± 0.04 g/kg. We found significantly higher earning of sucrose-only reinforcers and greater sucrose-lever error responding relative to the compound oral-sucrose plus IV-ethanol reinforcer. These response patterns suggest that sucrose, not ethanol, was responsible for driving overall responding. The work with a compound IV ethanol-oral sucrose reinforcer presented here suggests that the existing intravenous ethanol self-administration methodology cannot overcome the aversive properties of ethanol via this route in the rat.

KEYWORDS:

Alcohol-preferring; Conflict; Multiple schedule

PMID:
24835637
PMCID:
PMC4096581
DOI:
10.1016/j.alcohol.2013.12.007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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