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Biotechnol Biofuels. 2014 Apr 24;7:66. doi: 10.1186/1754-6834-7-66. eCollection 2014.

The complete genome of Blastobotrys (Arxula) adeninivorans LS3 - a yeast of biotechnological interest.

Author information

Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK), Corrensstr. 3, Gatersleben D-06466, Germany.
Yeast Genetics, Leibniz Institute of Plant Research (IPK), Corrensstrasse 3, Gatersleben 06466, Germany.
AgroParisTech, Micalis UMR 1319, CBAI, Thiverval-Grignon, F-78850, France.
INRA French National Institute for Agricultural Research, Micalis UMR 1319, CBAI, Thiverval-Grignon F-78850, France.
Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Al. 29 Listopada 54, Krakow 31-425, Poland.
LaBRI (UMR 5800 CNRS) and project-team Magnome INRIA Bordeaux Sud-Ouest, Talence F-33405, France.
Bioinformatics and Genomics Programme, Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG), Dr. Aiguader 88, Barcelona 08003, Spain.
Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona 08003, Spain.
Université de Strasbourg, Architecture et Réactivité de l'ARN, Institut de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire du CNRS, F-67084 Strasbourg, France.
Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS UMR 7283, Laboratoire de Chimie Bactérienne, F-13402 Marseille, Cedex 20, France.
CEA, Saclay Biology and Technologies Institute (iBiTec-S), Gif-sur-Yvette F-91191, France.
Université catholique de Louvain, Institut des Sciences de la Vie, Croix du Sud 5/15, Louvain-la-Neuve 1349, Belgium.
CEA, Institut de Génomique, Genoscope, 2 Rue Gaston Crémieux, Évry F-91000, France.
Université Catholique de Louvain, Earth and Life Institute (ELI), Louvain-la-Neuve 1348, Belgium.
School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand.
Université de Strasbourg, CNRS UMR7156, Strasbourg F-67000, France.
Institute of Biochemistry, University of Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorffstraße 4, Greifswald D-17487, Germany.
Institut de Génétique et Microbiologie, Université Paris-Sud, UMR CNRS 8621, F- Orsay CEDEX 91405, France.
Laboratory of Bioinformatics and Protein Engineering, International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology in Warsaw, ul. Ks. Trojdena 4, Warsaw 02-109, Poland.
CNRS UMR 8030, 2 Rue Gaston Crémieux, Évry F-91000, France.
Université d'Evry, Bd François Mitterand, Evry F-91025, France.
Institut Pasteur, Université Pierre et Marie Curie UFR927, CNRS UMR 3525, F-75724 Paris-CEDEX 15, France.
Université Lyon 1, CNRS UMR 5240, Villeurbanne F-69621, France.
Present address: École Normale Supérieure, Institut de Biologie de l'ENS (IBENS), 46 rue d'Ulm, Paris F-75005, France.
INRA Institut Micalis UMR 1319, AgroParisTech, BIMLip, Avenue de Bretignières, Bât. CBAI, Thiverval-Grignon 78850, France.
Contributed equally



The industrially important yeast Blastobotrys (Arxula) adeninivorans is an asexual hemiascomycete phylogenetically very distant from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Its unusual metabolic flexibility allows it to use a wide range of carbon and nitrogen sources, while being thermotolerant, xerotolerant and osmotolerant.


The sequencing of strain LS3 revealed that the nuclear genome of A. adeninivorans is 11.8 Mb long and consists of four chromosomes with regional centromeres. Its closest sequenced relative is Yarrowia lipolytica, although mean conservation of orthologs is low. With 914 introns within 6116 genes, A. adeninivorans is one of the most intron-rich hemiascomycetes sequenced to date. Several large species-specific families appear to result from multiple rounds of segmental duplications of tandem gene arrays, a novel mechanism not yet described in yeasts. An analysis of the genome and its transcriptome revealed enzymes with biotechnological potential, such as two extracellular tannases (Atan1p and Atan2p) of the tannic-acid catabolic route, and a new pathway for the assimilation of n-butanol via butyric aldehyde and butyric acid.


The high-quality genome of this species that diverged early in Saccharomycotina will allow further fundamental studies on comparative genomics, evolution and phylogenetics. Protein components of different pathways for carbon and nitrogen source utilization were identified, which so far has remained unexplored in yeast, offering clues for further biotechnological developments. In the course of identifying alternative microorganisms for biotechnological interest, A. adeninivorans has already proved its strengthened competitiveness as a promising cell factory for many more applications.


Biotechnology; Genome; Metabolism; Tannic acid; Yeast; n-butanol

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