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World J Gastroenterol. 2014 May 14;20(18):5442-60. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i18.5442.

Cirrhosis and its complications: evidence based treatment.

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Salman Nusrat, Muhammad S Khan, Javid Fazili, Mohammad F Madhoun, Department of Medicine, Division of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center and Veterans Affair Medical Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, United States.


Cirrhosis results from progressive fibrosis and is the final outcome of all chronic liver disease. It is among the ten leading causes of death in United States. Cirrhosis can result in portal hypertension and/or hepatic dysfunction. Both of these either alone or in combination can lead to many complications, including ascites, varices, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatopulmonary syndrome, and coagulation disorders. Cirrhosis and its complications not only impair quality of life but also decrease survival. Managing patients with cirrhosis can be a challenge and requires an organized and systematic approach. Increasing physicians' knowledge about prevention and treatment of these potential complications is important to improve patient outcomes. A literature search of the published data was performed to provide a comprehensive review regarding the management of cirrhosis and its complications.


Ascites; Hepatic encephalopathy; Hepatopulmonary syndrome; Portal hypertension; Portopulmonary hypertension; Varices

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