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Br J Nutr. 2014 Aug 14;112(3):320-7. doi: 10.1017/S0007114514001068. Epub 2014 May 15.

Influence of night-time protein and carbohydrate intake on appetite and cardiometabolic risk in sedentary overweight and obese women.

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Department of Nutrition,Food and Exercise Sciences, The Florida State University,120 Convocation Way, 430 Sandels Building,Tallahassee,FL32306,USA.
Department of Health and Exercise Sciences,Skidmore College,Saratoga Springs,NY12866,USA.


The present study investigated whether whey (WH) protein, casein (CAS) protein or a carbohydrate placebo (PLA) consumed 30 min before sleep could acutely alter appetite or cardiometabolic risk the following morning. A total of forty-four sedentary overweight and obese women (BMI: 25·7-54·6 kg/m2) completed this stratified, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (WH: n 16, age 27·4 (sd 5·0) years; CAS: n 15, age 30·3 (sd 8·1) years; PLA: n 13, age 28·5 (sd 7·2) years). The participants came to the laboratory at baseline (visit 1) and again in the morning after night-time ingestion of either protein or PLA (visit 2). Visit 2 was conducted at least 48 h after visit 1. During visits 1 and 2, the following parameters were measured: appetite (hunger, satiety and desire to eat); resting metabolism; blood lipid and glucose levels; the levels of insulin, leptin, C-reactive protein, insulin-like growth factor-1, cortisol and adiponectin. Data were analysed using repeated-measures ANOVA. No group × time interactions were observed for the measured variables; however, a main effect of time was observed for increased satiety (P= 0·03), reduced desire to eat (P= 0·006), and increased insulin levels (P= 0·004) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance values (P= 0·01) after the consumption of either protein or PLA. The results of the present study reveal that night-time consumption of protein or carbohydrate by sedentary overweight and obese women improves their appetite measures but negatively affects insulin levels. Long-term studies are needed to evaluate the effects of chronic consumption of low-energy snacks at night on body composition and cardiometabolic risk.

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