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Reprod Biomed Online. 2014 Aug;29(2):150-5. doi: 10.1016/j.rbmo.2014.04.001. Epub 2014 Apr 21.

Potential impact of human mitochondrial replacement on global policy regarding germline gene modification.

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Office of Health and Safety, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0808, Japan. Electronic address:


Previous discussions regarding human germline gene modification led to a global consensus that no germline should undergo genetic modification. However, the UK Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority, having conducted at the UK Government's request a scientific review and a wide public consultation, provided advice to the Government on the pros and cons of Parliament's lifting a ban on altering mitochondrial DNA content of human oocytes and embryos, so as to permit the prevention of maternal transmission of mitochondrial diseases. In this commentary, relevant ethical and biomedical issues are examined and requirements for proceeding with this novel procedure are suggested. Additionally, potentially significant impacts of the UK legalization on global policy concerning germline gene modification are discussed in the context of recent advances in genome-editing technology. It is concluded that international harmonization is needed, as well as further ethical and practical consideration, prior to the legalization of human mitochondrial replacement.


IVF; enhancement; ethics; eugenics; genome-editing technology; international harmonization

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