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Prion. 2014;8(3):240-6. Epub 2014 May 15.

Prion diseases and adult neurogenesis: how do prions counteract the brain's endogenous repair machinery?

Author information

1
Institut de Génétique Humaine; CNRS-UPR 1142; Montpellier, France.
2
Institut de Génétique Humaine; CNRS-UPR 1142; Montpellier, France; IRMB; INSERM-UM1 U1040; Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Cell Therapy of Neurodegenerative Disorders; CHU de Montpellier; Montpellier, France.

Abstract

Scientific advances in stem cell biology and adult neurogenesis have raised the hope that neurodegenerative disorders could benefit from stem cell-based therapy. Adult neurogenesis might be part of the physiological regenerative process, however it might become impaired by the disease's mechanism and therefore contribute to neurodegeneration. In prion disorders this endogenous repair system has rarely been studied. Whether adult neurogenesis plays a role or not in brain repair or in the propagation of prion pathology remains unclear. We have recently investigated the status of adult neural stem cells isolated from prion-infected mice. We were able to show that neural stem cells accumulate and replicate prions thus resulting in an alteration of their neuronal destiny. We also reproduced these results in adult neural stem cells, which were infected in vitro. The fact that endogenous adult neurogenesis could be altered by the accumulation of misfolded prion protein represents another great challenge. Inhibiting prion propagation in these cells would thus help the endogenous neurogenesis to compensate for the injured neuronal system. Moreover, understanding the endogenous modulation of the neurogenesis system would help develop effective neural stem cell-based therapies.

KEYWORDS:

cell therapy; neurodegenerative diseases; neurogenesis; prion; stem cell

PMID:
24831876
PMCID:
PMC4601379
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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