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J Am Chem Soc. 2014 May 28;136(21):7603-6. doi: 10.1021/ja503509k. Epub 2014 May 15.

Universal noble metal nanoparticle seeds realized through iterative reductive growth and oxidative dissolution reactions.

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Department of Chemistry, ‡International Institute for Nanotechnology, §Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University , Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States.


Control over nanoparticle shape and size is commonly achieved via a seed-mediated approach, where nanoparticle precursors, or seeds, are hypothesized to act as templates for the heterogeneous nucleation of anisotropic products. Despite the wide variety of shapes that have been produced via this approach, high yield and uniformity have been more difficult to achieve. These shortcomings are attributed to limited structural control and characterization of the initial distribution of seeds. Herein, we report how iterative reductive growth and oxidative dissolution reactions can be used to systematically control seed structural uniformity. Using these reactions, we verify that seed structure dictates anisotropic nanoparticle uniformity and show that iterative seed refinement leads to unprecedented noble metal nanoparticle uniformities and purities for eight different shapes produced from a single seed source. Because of this uniformity, the first nanoparticle optical extinction coefficients for these eight shapes were analytically determined.

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