Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Virol. 2014 Aug;88(15):8407-20. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01237-14. Epub 2014 May 14.

Emergence of CD4 independence envelopes and astrocyte infection in R5 simian-human immunodeficiency virus model of encephalitis.

Author information

1
Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, New York, New York, USA.
2
New England Primate Research Center, Division of Comparative Pathology, Southborough, Massachusetts, USA.
3
Tulane National Primate Research Center, Tulane University Medical Center, Covington, Louisiana, USA.
4
Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, New York, New York, USA cmayer@adarc.org.

Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in the central nervous system (CNS) is characterized by replication in macrophages or brain microglia that express low levels of the CD4 receptor and is the cause of HIV-associated dementia and related cognitive and motor disorders that affect 20 to 30% of treatment-naive patients with AIDS. Independent viral envelope evolution in the brain has been reported, with the need for robust replication in resident CD4(low) cells, as well as CD4-negative cells, such as astrocytes, proposed as a major selective pressure. We previously reported giant-cell encephalitis in subtype B and C R5 simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-infected macaques (SHIV-induced encephalitis [SHIVE]) that experienced very high chronic viral loads and progressed rapidly to AIDS, with varying degrees of macrophage or microglia infection and activation of these immune cells, as well as astrocytes, in the CNS. In this study, we characterized envelopes (Env) amplified from the brains of subtype B and C R5 SHIVE macaques. We obtained data in support of an association between severe neuropathological changes, robust macrophage and microglia infection, and evolution to CD4 independence. Moreover, the degree of Env CD4 independence appeared to correlate with the extent of astrocyte infection in vivo. These findings further our knowledge of the CNS viral population phenotypes that are associated with the severity of HIV/SHIV-induced neurological injury and improve our understanding of the mechanism of HIV-1 cellular tropism and persistence in the brain.

IMPORTANCE:

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of astrocytes in the brain has been suggested to be important in HIV persistence and neuropathogenesis but has not been definitively demonstrated in an animal model of HIV-induced encephalitis (HIVE). Here, we describe a new nonhuman primate (NHP) model of R5 simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-induced encephalitis (SHIVE) with several classical HIVE features that include astrocyte infection. We further show an association between severe neuropathological changes, robust resident microglia infection, and evolution to CD4 independence of viruses in the central nervous system (CNS), with expansion to infection of truly CD4-negative cells in vivo. These findings support the use of the R5 SHIVE models to study the contribution of the HIV envelope and viral clades to neurovirulence and residual virus replication in the CNS, providing information that should guide efforts to eradicate HIV from the body.

PMID:
24829360
PMCID:
PMC4135954
DOI:
10.1128/JVI.01237-14
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center