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Sci Rep. 2014 May 14;4:4958. doi: 10.1038/srep04958.

Analysis of horse genomes provides insight into the diversification and adaptive evolution of karyotype.

Author information

1
1] College of Animal Science, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot 010018, P.R. China [2].
2
1] Shanghai Personal Biotechnology Limited Company, 777 Longwu Road, Shanghai 200236, P.R. China [2].
3
College of Animal Science, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot 010018, P.R. China.
4
School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240, P. R. China.
5
Shanghai Personal Biotechnology Limited Company, 777 Longwu Road, Shanghai 200236, P.R. China.
6
Virginia Bioinformatics Institute, Virginia Tech, Washington Street, MC0477, Blacksburg, Virginia, 24061, USA.

Abstract

Karyotypic diversification is more prominent in Equus species than in other mammals. Here, using next generation sequencing technology, we generated and de novo assembled quality genomes sequences for a male wild horse (Przewalski's horse) and a male domestic horse (Mongolian horse), with about 93-fold and 91-fold coverage, respectively. Portion of Y chromosome from wild horse assemblies (3 M bp) and Mongolian horse (2 M bp) were also sequenced and de novo assembled. We confirmed a Robertsonian translocation event through the wild horse's chromosomes 23 and 24, which contained sequences that were highly homologous with those on the domestic horse's chromosome 5. The four main types of rearrangement, insertion of unknown origin, inserted duplication, inversion, and relocation, are not evenly distributed on all the chromosomes, and some chromosomes, such as the X chromosome, contain more rearrangements than others, and the number of inversions is far less than the number of insertions and relocations in the horse genome. Furthermore, we discovered the percentages of LINE_L1 and LTR_ERV1 are significantly increased in rearrangement regions. The analysis results of the two representative Equus species genomes improved our knowledge of Equus chromosome rearrangement and karyotype evolution.

PMID:
24828444
PMCID:
PMC4021364
DOI:
10.1038/srep04958
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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