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Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2014 Apr;89(4):042402. Epub 2014 Apr 7.

Droplet evaporation on heated hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces.

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1
Cooling Technologies Research Center, an NSF IUCRC School of Mechanical Engineering, and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-2088, USA.

Abstract

The evaporation characteristics of sessile water droplets on smooth hydrophobic and structured superhydrophobic heated surfaces are experimentally investigated. Droplets placed on the hierarchical superhydrophobic surface subtend a very high contact angle (∼160°) and demonstrate low roll-off angle (∼1°), while the hydrophobic substrate supports corresponding values of 120° and ∼10°. The substrates are heated to different constant temperatures in the range of 40-60 °C, which causes the droplet to evaporate much faster than in the case of natural evaporation without heating. The geometric parameters of the droplet, such as contact angle, contact radius, and volume evolution over time, are experimentally tracked. The droplets are observed to evaporate primarily in a constant-contact-angle mode where the contact line slides along the surface. The measurements are compared with predictions from a model based on diffusion of vapor into the ambient that assumes isothermal conditions. This vapor-diffusion-only model captures the qualitative evaporation characteristics on both test substrates, but reasonable quantitative agreement is achieved only for the hydrophobic surface. The superhydrophobic surface demonstrates significant deviation between the measured evaporation rate and that obtained using the vapor-diffusion-only model, with the difference being amplified as the substrate temperature is increased. A simple model considering thermal diffusion through the droplet is used to highlight the important role of evaporative cooling at the droplet interface in determining the droplet evaporation characteristics on superhydrophobic surfaces.

PMID:
24827255
DOI:
10.1103/PhysRevE.89.042402
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