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Transplantation. 2014 Nov 15;98(9):979-86. doi: 10.1097/TP.0000000000000165.

Making house calls increases living donor inquiries and evaluations for blacks on the kidney transplant waiting list.

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1 Center for Transplant Outcomes and Quality Improvement, The Transplant Institute, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and the Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. 2 Amgen, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA. 3 Department of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA. 4 Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH. 5 Address correspondence to: James R. Rodrigue, Ph.D., The Transplant Institute, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 110 Francis St., 7th Floor, Boston, MA 02215.



Blacks receive live donor kidney transplant (LDKT) less often than patients of all other races. We evaluated the effectiveness of educational interventions in removing barriers to LDKT for blacks.


Patients were randomized to three interventions in which health educator(s) delivered an intervention to (a) the patient and his/her guests in the patient's home (house calls [HC], n=54), (b) clusters of patients and their guests in the transplant center (group based [GB], n=49), and (c) the individual patient alone in the transplant center (individual counseling [IC], n=49).


At the 2-year endpoint, 15% (n=8), 8% (n=4), and 6% (n=3) of HC, GB, and IC patients, respectively, received LDKT (P=0.30). Patients in the HC group were more likely than patients in the GB and IC groups to have at least one donor inquiry (82% vs. 61% vs. 47%, P=0.001) and evaluation (65% vs. 39% vs. 27%, P<0.001). Patients in the HC group also were more likely to have higher knowledge, fewer concerns, and higher willingness to talk to others about donation 6 weeks after intervention.


These findings underscore the importance of including the patient's social network in LDKT education and the potential of the HC intervention to reduce racial disparity in LDKT rates.

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