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Plant Cell. 2014 May;26(5):2143-2155. Epub 2014 May 13.

The Novel Nuclear Envelope Protein KAKU4 Modulates Nuclear Morphology in Arabidopsis.

Author information

1
Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.
2
Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Ikoma 630-0192, Japan.
3
Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan ihnishi@gr.bot.kyoto-u.ac.jp.

Abstract

In animals, the nuclear lamina is a fibrillar meshwork on the inner surface of the nuclear envelope, composed of coiled-coil lamin proteins and lamin binding membrane proteins. Plants also have a meshwork on the inner surface of the nuclear envelope, but little is known about its composition other than the presence of members of the CROWDED NUCLEI (CRWN) protein family, possible plant lamin analogs. Here, we describe a candidate lamina component, based on two Arabidopsis thaliana mutants (kaku2 and kaku4) with aberrant nuclear morphology. The responsible gene in kaku2 encodes CRWN1, and the responsible gene in kaku4 encodes a plant-specific protein of unknown function (KAKU4) that physically interacts with CRWN1 and its homolog CRWN4. Immunogold labeling revealed that KAKU4 localizes at the inner nuclear membrane. KAKU4 deforms the nuclear envelope in a dose-dependent manner, in association with nuclear membrane invagination and stack formation. The KAKU4-dependent nuclear envelope deformation was enhanced by overaccumulation of CRWN1, although KAKU4 can deform the nuclear envelope even in the absence of CRWN1 and/or CRWN4. Together, these results suggest that plants have evolved a unique lamina-like structure to modulate nuclear shape and size.

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