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J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Sep;99(9):E1774-83. doi: 10.1210/jc.2014-1029. Epub 2014 May 13.

Autosomal dominant hypoparathyroidism caused by germline mutation in GNA11: phenotypic and molecular characterization.

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Center for Applied Genomics (D.L., C.H., H.H.), Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes (E.E.O., M.A.L.), Division of Allergy and Immunology (F.T.), Division of Pulmonary Medicine (H.H.), and Center for Bone Health (M.A.L.), The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia; and Department of Pediatrics (H.H., M.A.L.), University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104; and Endocrinology and Diabetes Unit (D.L.M.), British Columbia Children's Hospital, and Department of Pediatrics (D.L.M.), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V5Z 4H4.



Most cases of autosomal dominant hypoparathyroidism (ADH) are caused by gain-of-function mutations in CASR or dominant inhibitor mutations in GCM2 or PTH.


Our objectives were to identify the genetic basis for ADH in a multigenerational family and define the underlying disease mechanism.


Here we evaluated a multigenerational family with ADH in which affected subjects had normal sequences in these genes and were shorter than unaffected family members.


We collected clinical and biochemical data from 6 of 11 affected subjects and performed whole-exome sequence analysis on DNA from two affected sisters and their affected father. Functional studies were performed after expression of wild-type and mutant Gα11 proteins in human embryonic kidney-293-CaR cells that stably express calcium-sensing receptors.


Whole-exome-sequencing followed by Sanger sequencing revealed a heterozygous mutation, c.179G>T; p.R60L, in GNA11, which encodes the α-subunit of G11, the principal heterotrimeric G protein that couples calcium-sensing receptors to signal activation in parathyroid cells. Functional studies of Gα11 R60L showed increased accumulation of intracellular concentration of free calcium in response to extracellular concentration of free calcium with a significantly decreased EC50 compared with wild-type Gα11. By contrast, R60L was significantly less effective than the oncogenic Q209L form of Gα11 as an activator of the MAPK pathway. Compared to subjects with CASR mutations, patients with GNA11 mutations lacked hypercalciuria and had normal serum magnesium levels.


Our findings indicate that the germline gain-of-function mutation of GNA11 is a cause of ADH and implicate a novel role for GNA11 in skeletal growth.

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