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Indian J Med Res. 2014 Mar;139(3):402-8.

Presence of depression and its risk factors in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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Department of Pharmacy Practice, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Hajipur, India.



Although depression is a significant co-morbid condition in chronic illnesses, little is known about the prevalence or risk factors for depressive symptoms in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in India. This study was undertaken to investigate the presence and risk factors of depression in the COPD patients attending a tertiary care health facility in north India.


COPD was classified according to GOLD stages based on forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 ) in 126 stable patients. Depression was examined by administering the nine-item Hindi version of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Linear regression model was used to examine association between predictor variables and risk of depression with adjustment of age and sex. Cronbach alpha was calculated to assess internal consistency of PHQ-9.


In the study population as whole, 33.3 per cent patients showed moderate to severe depressive symptoms whereas 20.6 per cent patients had major depressive disorder on PHQ-9 Scale. Educational and occupational status, body mass index, FEV 1, respiratory symptoms, physical impairment and dyspnoea were found to be potential predictors of depression in COPD patients.


One fifth of the patients with COPD had severe symptoms of related to depression, which was especially higher with severity of COPD. Hence, the patients with COPD should focus on management of these two conditions. Further, future studies should be conducted to assess the role of depression management and timely treatment of it in patients with COPD.

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