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Appetite. 2014 Sep;80:236-41. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2014.04.031. Epub 2014 May 10.

Return of hunger following a relatively high carbohydrate breakfast is associated with earlier recorded glucose peak and nadir.

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Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1720 2nd Ave South, Webb Building, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.
University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Nursing, 1720 2nd Ave South, Nursing Building: Office 450, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA. Electronic address:
Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1720 2nd Ave South, Medical Towers 621, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.


The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that a breakfast meal with high carbohydrate/low fat results in an earlier increase in postprandial glucose and insulin, a greater decrease below baseline in postprandial glucose, and an earlier return of appetite, compared with a low carbohydrate/high fat meal. Overweight but otherwise healthy adults (n = 64) were maintained on one of two eucaloric diets: high carbohydrate/low fat (HC/LF; 55:27:18% kcals from carbohydrate:fat:protein) versus low carbohydrate/high fat (LC/HF; 43:39:18% kcals from carbohydrate:fat:protein). After 4 weeks of acclimation to the diets, participants underwent a meal test during which circulating glucose and insulin and self-reported hunger and fullness, were measured before and after consumption of breakfast from their assigned diets. The LC/HF meal resulted in a later time at the highest and lowest recorded glucose, higher glucose concentrations at 3 and 4 hours post meal, and lower insulin incremental area under the curve. Participants consuming the LC/HF meal reported lower appetite 3 and 4 hours following the meal, a response that was associated with the timing of the highest and lowest recorded glucose. Modest increases in meal carbohydrate content at the expense of fat content may facilitate weight gain over the long-term by contributing to an earlier rise and fall of postprandial glucose concentrations and an earlier return of appetite.


Diet intervention; Food intake; Insulin; Satiety

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