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Annu Rev Nutr. 2014;34:237-60. doi: 10.1146/annurev-nutr-071812-161201. Epub 2014 Apr 10.

Incretins and amylin: neuroendocrine communication between the gut, pancreas, and brain in control of food intake and blood glucose.

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Translational Neuroscience Program, Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104; email:


Arguably the most fundamental physiological systems for all eukaryotic life are those governing energy balance. Without sufficient energy, an individual is unable to survive and reproduce. Thus, an ever-growing appreciation is that mammalian physiology developed a redundant set of neuroendocrine signals that regulate energy intake and expenditure, which maintains sufficient circulating energy, predominantly in the form of glucose, to ensure that energy needs are met throughout the body. This orchestrated control requires cross talk between the gastrointestinal tract, which senses the incoming meal; the pancreas, which produces glycemic counterregulatory hormones; and the brain, which controls autonomic and behavioral processes regulating energy balance. Therefore, this review highlights the physiological, pharmacological, and pathophysiological effects of the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 and gastric inhibitory polypeptide, as well as the pancreatic hormone amylin, on energy balance and glycemic control.


GIP; GLP-1; IAPP; blood glucose; diabetes; obesity; vagus nerve

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