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Virus Genes. 2014 Aug;49(1):145-51. doi: 10.1007/s11262-014-1079-3. Epub 2014 May 13.

Genome analysis of Enterococcus faecalis bacteriophage IME-EF3 harboring a putative metallo-beta-lactamase gene.

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Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100071, China,


Lytic Enterococcus faecalis bacteriophage IME-EF3 was isolated from hospital sewage, and its genome was sequenced using high-throughput sequencing. Genomic analysis and electron microscopy suggested that IME-EF3 was a member of the family Siphoviridae. The phage has an isometric head and a long non-contractile tail with a 41 kb linear double-stranded DNA genome. The genome encodes 69 putative proteins, with 32 annotated functionally, including proteins related to phage structure, packaging, transcription, replication, and a lysis module. Interestingly, a metallo-beta-lactamase gene responsible for multi-drug resistance was found in the genome of IME-EF3. The possibility of horizontal gene transfer of the metallo-beta-lactamase gene suggests that phage IME-EF3, although lytic, might not be suitable for phage therapy unless one would devise a way to delete the metallo-beta-lactamase gene. Hence, whole genome sequencing should always be a prerequisite for identifying a phage therapy candidate.

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