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Environ Monit Assess. 2014 Sep;186(9):5429-37. doi: 10.1007/s10661-014-3792-8. Epub 2014 May 10.

Persistence and effect of processing on reduction of fipronil and its metabolites in chilli pepper (Capsicum annum L.) fruits.

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Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Abishekapatti, Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India, 627012,


A single laboratory UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the estimation of fipronil and its metabolites in fresh and dry chilli pepper fruits. Dissipation of fipronil on chilli fruits was studied following the application of fipronil (Jump 80 WG) at 40 and 80 g active ingredient (a.i.) ha(-1) in the fruiting stage of the crop. The initial deposits of total fipronil on fresh chilli fruits at single and double dose application were 0.69 and 1.43 μg g(-1), respectively, and were dissipated to below quantitation level at 27 days after application. The half-life of fipronil at single and double dose in fresh chilli pepper was 4.22 and 4.32 days and the waiting period was 25.9 and 30.6 days, respectively. Processing factor due to sun drying was calculated by measuring fipronil residues in dry chilli fruits, and it ranged from 2.96 to 3.50 during 0 to 21st day after application. Among the metabolites of fipronil, fipronil desulfenyl and fipronil sulfone had maximum residues in fresh and dried chilli, respectively, followed by fipronil sulfide. Dipping in solutions of tamarind, turmeric, vinegar and slaked lime and wet scrubbing could remove more than 90% of fipronil residues in fruits.

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