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Asian J Psychiatr. 2014 Jun;9:61-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ajp.2014.01.006. Epub 2014 Jan 29.

Sleep duration and its association with sleepiness and depression in "ronin-sei" preparatory school students.

Author information

1
Department of Neuropsychiatry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan. Electronic address: matsushita@fc.kuh.kumamoto-u.ac.jp.
2
Department of Neuropsychiatry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan.
3
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Kohnodai Hospital, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Ichikawa, Chiba, Japan.
4
Department of Psychiatry, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka, Japan; Osaka University Health Care Center, Toyonaka, Osaka, Japan.
5
Department of Child Studies, Faculty of Human Life Studies, University of Niigata Prefecture, Niigata, Niigata, Japan.
6
Kumamoto University Health Care Center, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan.

Abstract

PURPOSES:

The Japanese word "ronin-sei" refers to a student who has failed their university entrance examination and is preparing to re-take the examination in the following year. We aimed to determine how sleep duration is associated with daytime sleepiness or depression in ronin-sei because impaired daytime performance is known to result from sleep deprivation.

METHODS:

The participants in this cross-sectional study were 1075 ronin-sei and 285 university students. Sleepiness and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), respectively.

RESULTS:

Ronin-sei had significantly shorter sleep duration and earlier bed- and rise-times than university students. There was no significant difference in CES-D between the groups; however, the ESS score of university students was significantly higher than that of ronin-sei. Ronin-sei who slept for 5 to <6h had higher ESS scores than those who slept for 6 to <7h. The mean CES-D score in ronin-sei who slept <5h was significantly higher than in those who slept for 5 to <6h, from 6 to <7h, and from 7 to <8h. Ronin-sei who slept for more than 8h also had higher depression scores.

CONCLUSIONS:

Sleep deprivation appears to be common among ronin-sei. Furthermore, a U-shaped relationship was found between sleep duration and depressive symptoms, revealing that ronin-sei who had too little or too much sleep were more likely to exhibit an increase in depressive symptoms.

KEYWORDS:

Adolescence; Mental health; Preparatory school; Sleep hygiene

PMID:
24813039
DOI:
10.1016/j.ajp.2014.01.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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