Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2014;2014:387070. doi: 10.1155/2014/387070. Epub 2014 Apr 9.

Determinants of symptomatic vulvovaginal candidiasis among human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infected women in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

Author information

1
Department of Infection Prevention and Control and Medical Microbiology, School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag 7, Congella, Durban 4013, South Africa ; Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, Private Bag X1, Mthatha, Eastern Cape 5117, South Africa.
2
HIV Pathogenesis Programme (HPP), Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag 7, Congella, Durban 4013, South Africa ; Department of Biology, Medgar Evers College, City University of New York, Brooklyn, NY 11225, USA.
3
Department of Infection Prevention and Control and Medical Microbiology, School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag 7, Congella, Durban 4013, South Africa.
4
Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, Private Bag X1, Mthatha, Eastern Cape 5117, South Africa.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

We sought to determine the association between HIV-induced immunosuppression, virologic correlates, and vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC).

METHODS:

This is a retrospective cohort study, where HIV infected and uninfected women were studied with VVC being the primary outcome. Ninety-seven HIV-infected and 101 HIV-uninfected women were enrolled between June and December 2011. Cases of VVC were confirmed. HIV RNA load was determined by RT-PCR and CD4 counts were obtained from medical records.

RESULTS:

Fifty-two of 97 (53.6%) HIV-infected and 38/101 (37.6%) HIV-uninfected women were diagnosed with VVC (P = 0.032). The relative risk for VVC amongst HIV-infected patients was 1.53 (95% CI: 1.04-2 P = 0.024). Cases of VVC increased at CD4+ T cell count below 200 cells/mm(3) (P < 0.0001) and plasma HIV RNA load above 10 000 copies/mL (P < 0.0001). VVC was associated with increased genital shedding of HIV (P = 0.002), and there was a linear correlation between plasma HIV load and genital HIV shedding (r = 0.540; R (2) = 0.292; P < 0.0001). Women on HAART were 4-fold less likely (P = 0.029) to develop VVC.

CONCLUSION:

CD4 counts below 200 cells/mm(3) and plasma HIV loads ≥10 000 copies/mL were significantly associated with VVC.

PMID:
24812479
PMCID:
PMC4000633
DOI:
10.1155/2014/387070
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Hindawi Publishing Corporation Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center