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Brain. 2014 Jul;137(Pt 7):1931-44. doi: 10.1093/brain/awu115. Epub 2014 May 8.

Predicting and correcting ataxia using a model of cerebellar function.

Author information

1
1 Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore MD, USA2 Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore MD, USA3 Department of Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore MD, USA4 Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
2
5 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford CA, USA6 Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore MD, USA.
3
2 Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore MD, USA3 Department of Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore MD, USA bastian@kennedykrieger.org.

Abstract

Cerebellar damage results in uncoordinated, variable and dysmetric movements known as ataxia. Here we show that we can reliably model single-joint reaching trajectories of patients (n = 10), reproduce patient-like deficits in the behaviour of controls (n = 11), and apply patient-specific compensations that improve reaching accuracy (P < 0.02). Our approach was motivated by the theory that the cerebellum is essential for updating and/or storing an internal dynamic model that relates motor commands to changes in body state (e.g. arm position and velocity). We hypothesized that cerebellar damage causes a mismatch between the brain's modelled dynamics and the actual body dynamics, resulting in ataxia. We used both behavioural and computational approaches to demonstrate that specific cerebellar patient deficits result from biased internal models. Our results strongly support the idea that an intact cerebellum is critical for maintaining accurate internal models of dynamics. Importantly, we demonstrate how subject-specific compensation can improve movement in cerebellar patients, who are notoriously unresponsive to treatment.

KEYWORDS:

ataxia; cerebellum; computational model; dysmetria; internal model

PMID:
24812203
PMCID:
PMC4065021
DOI:
10.1093/brain/awu115
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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