Format

Send to

Choose Destination
PLoS One. 2014 May 7;9(5):e96296. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096296. eCollection 2014.

Significance of ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 elevations in athletes after sub-concussive head hits.

Author information

1
Cerebrovascular Research, Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America; Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America; Department of Molecular Medicine, Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America.
2
Cerebrovascular Research, Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America; Department of Molecular Medicine, Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America; Department of Clinical-Bioanalytical Chemistry, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America.
3
Department of Neuroscience, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America.
4
Departments of Emergency Medicine and Neurosurgery, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, United States of America.
5
Cerebrovascular Research, Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America; Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America; Department of Molecular Medicine, Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America; Department of Clinical-Bioanalytical Chemistry, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America.

Abstract

The impact of sub-concussive head hits (sub-CHIs) has been recently investigated in American football players, a population at risk for varying degrees of post-traumatic sequelae. Results show how sub-CHIs in athletes translate in serum as the appearance of reporters of blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD), how the number and severity of sub-CHIs correlate with elevations of putative markers of brain injury is unknown. Serum brain injury markers such as UCH-L1 depend on BBBD. We investigated the effects of sub-CHIs in collegiate football players on markers of BBBD, markers of cerebrospinal fluid leakage (serum beta 2-transferrin) and markers of brain damage. Emergency room patients admitted for a clinically-diagnosed mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) were used as positive controls. Healthy volunteers were used as negative controls. Specifically this study was designed to determine the use of UCH-L1 as an aid in the diagnosis of sub-concussive head injury in athletes. The extent and intensity of head impacts and serum values of S100B, UCH-L1, and beta-2 transferrin were measured pre- and post-game from 15 college football players who did not experience a concussion after a game. S100B was elevated in players experiencing the most sub-CHIs; UCH-L1 levels were also elevated but did not correlate with S100B or sub-CHIs. Beta-2 transferrin levels remained unchanged. No correlation between UCH-L1 levels and mTBI were measured in patients. Low levels of S100B were able to rule out mTBI and high S100B levels correlated with TBI severity. UCH-L1 did not display any interpretable change in football players or in individuals with mild TBI. The significance of UCH-L1 changes in sub-concussions or mTBI needs to be further elucidated.

PMID:
24806476
PMCID:
PMC4012998
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0096296
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center