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J Infect Dis. 2014 Sep 1;210(5):752-61. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiu165. Epub 2014 May 5.

Protection versus pathology in aviremic and high viral load HIV-2 infection-the pivotal role of immune activation and T-cell kinetics.

Author information

1
Infection and Immunity Research Institute, St George's, University of London, United Kingdom.
2
Medical Research Council (UK), The Gambia, West Africa.
3
Translational Medicine Group, Cranfield Health, Cranfield University.
4
School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London, United Kingdom.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Many human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-2-infected individuals remain aviremic and behave as long-term non-progressors but some progress to AIDS. We hypothesized that immune activation and T-cell turnover would be critical determinants of non-progressor/progressor status.

METHODS:

We studied 37 subjects in The Gambia, West Africa: 10 HIV-negative controls, 10 HIV-2-infected subjects with low viral loads (HIV-2-LV), 7 HIV-2-infected subjects with high viral loads (HIV-2-HV), and 10 with HIV-1 infection. We measured in vivo T-cell turnover using deuterium-glucose labeling, and correlated results with T-cell phenotype (by flow cytometry) and T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) abundance.

RESULTS:

Immune activation (HLA-DR/CD38 coexpression) differed between groups with a significant trend: controls <HIV-2-LV <HIV-1 <HIV-2-HV (P < .01 for all cell types). A similar trend was observed in the pattern of in vivo turnover of memory CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells and TREC depletion in naive CD4(+) T-cells, although naive T-cell turnover was relatively unaffected by either infection. T-cell turnover, immune activation, and progressor status were closely associated.

CONCLUSIONS:

HIV-2 non-progressors have low rates of T-cell turnover (both CD4(+) and CD8(+)) and minimal immune activation; high viral load HIV-2 progressors had high values, similar to or exceeding those in HIV-1 infection.

KEYWORDS:

CD4; CD8; HIV pathogenesis; HIV-1; HIV-2; T-cell; immune activation; immune memory

PMID:
24803534
PMCID:
PMC4130319
DOI:
10.1093/infdis/jiu165
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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