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Surg Innov. 2015 Apr;22(2):177-82. doi: 10.1177/1553350614532534. Epub 2014 May 6.

The effects of intraoperative esmolol administration on perioperative inflammatory responses in patients undergoing laparoscopic gastrectomy: a dose-response study.

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The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.
The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea



Surgical trauma elicits inflammatory responses, including the secretion of cytokines. Recent studies demonstrated that beta-blockers could reduce the expression of cytokines after injury. We therefore tested the effects of different doses of intraoperative esmolol on the inflammatory response after surgery.


Patients undergoing laparoscopic gastrectomy were randomly separated into 1 of 3 groups: saline, clinical dose, and subclinical dose groups. The levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-4, and IL-10 were quantified by sandwich enzyme-linked immunoassay after the induction of anesthesia (T0), at the end of peritoneal closure (T1), and 60 minutes after surgery (T2). Levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured on postoperative day 1.


At T2, the levels of IL-6 and IL-10 in the saline group were elevated significantly compared with at T0 or T1 (IL-6: 119.62 and 15.97 pg/mL at T2 and T0, respectively [P = .042]; IL-10: 27.27 and 7.03 pg/mL at T2 and T1, respectively [P = .037]). However, no changes were observed over time in the clinical dose group. In contrast, postoperative levels of IL-4 were decreased significantly in the clinical dose group compared with the saline group (2.14 vs 21.91 pg/mL, P = .022). In addition, the CRP levels on postoperative day 1 were lower in the esmolol-treated groups, in a dose-dependent manner.


Serum IL-6 and IL-10 levels were increased over time, suggesting that laparoscopic surgery is a stressor, even though it causes minimal tissue injury. Treatment with esmolol decreased the inflammatory response and CRP production in a dose-dependent manner.


beta-blocker; cytokine; esmolol; surgery

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