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Glob Chang Biol. 2014 Oct;20(10):3004-25. doi: 10.1111/gcb.12623. Epub 2014 Jun 30.

Climate change and Southern Ocean ecosystems I: how changes in physical habitats directly affect marine biota.

Author information

1
Australian Antarctic Division, Channel Highway, Kingston, Tasmania, 7050, Australia; Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre, Private Bag 80, Hobart, Tasmania, 7001, Australia.

Abstract

Antarctic and Southern Ocean (ASO) marine ecosystems have been changing for at least the last 30 years, including in response to increasing ocean temperatures and changes in the extent and seasonality of sea ice; the magnitude and direction of these changes differ between regions around Antarctica that could see populations of the same species changing differently in different regions. This article reviews current and expected changes in ASO physical habitats in response to climate change. It then reviews how these changes may impact the autecology of marine biota of this polar region: microbes, zooplankton, salps, Antarctic krill, fish, cephalopods, marine mammals, seabirds, and benthos. The general prognosis for ASO marine habitats is for an overall warming and freshening, strengthening of westerly winds, with a potential pole-ward movement of those winds and the frontal systems, and an increase in ocean eddy activity. Many habitat parameters will have regionally specific changes, particularly relating to sea ice characteristics and seasonal dynamics. Lower trophic levels are expected to move south as the ocean conditions in which they are currently found move pole-ward. For Antarctic krill and finfish, the latitudinal breadth of their range will depend on their tolerance of warming oceans and changes to productivity. Ocean acidification is a concern not only for calcifying organisms but also for crustaceans such as Antarctic krill; it is also likely to be the most important change in benthic habitats over the coming century. For marine mammals and birds, the expected changes primarily relate to their flexibility in moving to alternative locations for food and the energetic cost of longer or more complex foraging trips for those that are bound to breeding colonies. Few species are sufficiently well studied to make comprehensive species-specific vulnerability assessments possible. Priorities for future work are discussed.

KEYWORDS:

Antarctica; benthos; climate change; krill; marine ecosystems; marine mammals; ocean acidification; penguins; plankton; sea ice

PMID:
24802817
DOI:
10.1111/gcb.12623
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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