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Nutrition. 2014 Jun;30(6):726-8. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2014.01.005. Epub 2014 Jan 29.

Long-term effects of a ketogenic diet on body composition and bone mineralization in GLUT-1 deficiency syndrome: a case series.

Author information

1
International Centre for the Assessment of Nutritional Status (ICANS), Department of Food Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), University of Milan, Milan, Italy.
2
Human Nutrition and Eating Disorder Research Center, Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.
3
Department of Neuroscience, IRCCS "C. Mondino" Foundation, Pavia, Italy.
4
Human Nutrition and Eating Disorder Research Center, Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy. Electronic address: Anna.tagliabue@unipv.it.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The only known treatment of glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT-1 DS) is a ketogenic diet (KD), which provides the brain with an alternative fuel. Studies in children with intractable epilepsy have shown that a prolonged KD can induce a progressive loss of bone mineral content associated with poor bone health status, probably as a consequence of a chronic acidic environment. The aim of this study is to determine the long-term effects of a KD on body composition and bone mineral status of patients with GLUT-1 DS, is currently unknown.

METHODS:

In this case series, we report the changes in body composition and bone mineral status observed in three adult patients with GLUT-1 DS who have been treated with a KD for more than 5 y.

RESULTS:

A long-term KD did not produce appreciable changes in weight and body composition of adults with GLUT-1 DS. Moreover, we found no evidence of potential adverse effects of a KD on bone health. In summary, this case series contributes to a small but growing body of literature that investigated the potential long-term effects of a KD on bone health.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our data suggest that maintaining a KD for more than 5 y does not pose any major negative effects on body composition, bone mineral content, and bone mineral density in adults with GLUT-1 DS, a finding that is at variance with previous reports focusing on children with intractable epilepsy. Further studies with larger sizes are needed to confirm and expand our findings.

KEYWORDS:

Body composition; Bone health; Glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome; Ketogenic diet

PMID:
24800673
DOI:
10.1016/j.nut.2014.01.005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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