Send to

Choose Destination
Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014 Nov;20(11):O928-35. doi: 10.1111/1469-0691.12661. Epub 2014 Jun 14.

Recurrent late-onset sepsis in the neonatal intensive care unit: incidence, clinical characteristics and risk factors.

Author information

Division of Neonatology and Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Yunlin, Taiwan; College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; Department of Nursing, Division of Basic Medical Sciences, and Chronic Diseases and Health Promotion Research Center, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Chiayi, Taiwan; Research Center for Industry of Human Ecology, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Taoyuan, Taiwan.


We aimed to characterize the incidence, clinical features, risk factors and outcomes of recurrent late-onset sepsis (LOS) in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). All neonates with LOS from the NICU of a tertiary-level teaching hospital in northern Taiwan between 2004 and 2011 were enrolled for analyses. A case-control study was performed to determine risk factors for recurrence. Of 713 neonates with LOS, 150 (21.0%) experienced recurrence and 48 (6.7%) had >1 recurrences; c. two-thirds of recurrent LOS occurred in infants with birth weight (BW)≦1500 g or gestational age (GA)≦30 weeks. The recurrent LOS episodes were significantly more severe and had a higher sepsis-attributable mortality rate than the first episodes. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 30.7% for neonates with recurrent LOS and 7.8% for those with single LOS (odds ratio (OR), 5.22; 95% CI, 3.28-8.30). When both BW and GA were controlled, neonates with recurrent LOS had a significantly prolonged hospitalization compared with the controls (median 109 vs. 84 days, p<0.001). After multivariate logistic regression, longer duration of total parenteral nutrition (TPN; OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.10-1.52 for every 10-day increment), presence of congenital anomalies (OR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.10-6.35) and neurological co-morbidities (OR, 4.14; 95% CI, 1.14-15.10) were identified as the independent risk factors for LOS recurrence. We concluded that c. one-fifth of neonates with LOS had recurrence, which significantly resulted in prolonged hospitalization and increased mortality. Longer TPN administration, presence of congenital anomalies and neurological co-morbidities are independently associated with recurrent LOS.


Antibiotic resistance; bacteraemia; late-onset sepsis; recurrence; risk factor

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center