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Peptides. 2014 Jul;57:78-94. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2014.04.015. Epub 2014 Apr 30.

Cell penetrating peptides: efficient vectors for delivery of nanoparticles, nanocarriers, therapeutic and diagnostic molecules.

Author information

1
Department of Medical Nanotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Medical Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Golgasht Street, 51664 Tabriz, Iran; Research Center for Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address: mosafarkhanis@gmail.com.
2
Department of Medical Nanotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Medical Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Golgasht Street, 51664 Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address: a.valizadeh_medicalnano@yahoo.com.
3
Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Medicine, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Sardasht, 38481 Arak, Iran. Electronic address: Hadimolmed@gmail.com.
4
Department of Medical Nanotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Medical Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Golgasht Street, 51664 Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address: asemane_m1986@yahoo.com.
5
Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Golgasht Street, 51664 Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address: Nasrin_sohrabi1986@yahoo.com.
6
Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Medical Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Golgasht Street, 51664 Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address: badrzadehf@yahoo.com.

Abstract

Efficient delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic molecules to the cells and tissues is a difficult challenge. The cellular membrane is very effective in its role as a selectively permeable barrier. While it is essential for cell survival and function, also presents a major barrier for intracellular delivery of cargo such as therapeutic and diagnostic agents. In recent years, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), that are relatively short cationic and/or amphipathic peptides, received great attention as efficient cellular delivery vectors due to their intrinsic ability to enter cells and mediate uptake of a wide range of macromolecular cargo such as plasmid DNA (pDNA), small interfering RNA (siRNAs), drugs, and nanoparticulate pharmaceutical carriers. This review discusses the various uptake mechanisms of these peptides. Furthermore, we discuss recent advances in the use of CPP for the efficient delivery of nanoparticles, nanocarriers, DNA, siRNA, and anticancer drugs to the cells. In addition, we have been highlighting new results for improving endosomal escape of CPP-cargo molecules. Finally, pH-responsive and activable CPPs for tumor-targeting therapy have been described.

KEYWORDS:

Cell penetrating peptides; Drug delivery; Endosomal escape; Gene delivery; Nanocarrier; Nanoparticle

PMID:
24795041
DOI:
10.1016/j.peptides.2014.04.015
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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