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J Periodontol. 2014 Oct;85(10):1321-32. doi: 10.1902/jop.2014.130686. Epub 2014 May 2.

Vitamin D status and 5-year changes in periodontal disease measures among postmenopausal women: the Buffalo OsteoPerio Study.

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Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Health Professions, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY.



Vitamin D is hypothesized to prevent periodontal disease progression through its immune-modulating properties and its role in maintaining systemic calcium concentrations. The authors investigated associations between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] (collected 1997 to 2000) and the 5-year change in periodontal disease measures from baseline (1997 to 2000) to follow-up (2002 to 2005) among 655 postmenopausal women in a Women's Health Initiative Observational Study ancillary study. Exploratory analyses were conducted in 628 women who also had 25(OH)D measures at follow-up.


Four continuous measures of the 5-year change in periodontal disease were assessed using alveolar crest height (ACH), clinical attachment level (CAL), probing depth (PD), and percentage of gingival sites that bled on assessment. Linear regression was used to estimate β-coefficients, standard errors, and P values corresponding to change in periodontal disease (a 1-mm change in ACH, CAL, or PD or a 1-unit change in the percentage of gingival sites that bled) for a 10-nmol/L difference in 25(OH)D. Models were adjusted for age, education, dental visit frequency, smoking, diabetes status, current medications affecting bone health, baseline measures of periodontal disease, body mass index, and recreational physical activity.


No statistically significant associations were observed between baseline 25(OH)D and change in periodontal disease measures, overall or in a subset (n = 442) of women with stable 25(OH)D concentrations [25(OH)D change <20 nmol/L from baseline to follow-up]. RESULTS also did not vary significantly in analyses that were stratified by baseline periodontal disease status.


No association between baseline 25(OH)D and the subsequent 5-year change in periodontal disease measures was observed. Vitamin D status may not influence periodontal disease progression. More studies are needed to confirm these results.


Alveolar bone loss; epidemiology; periodontal diseases; postmenopause; vitamin D; women

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