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Am J Cardiol. 2014 Jun 15;113(12):2057-63. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2014.03.048. Epub 2014 Apr 1.

Relation of long-term exposure to air pollution to brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and reactive hyperemia.

Author information

1
Cardiovascular Epidemiology Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address: ewilker@bidmc.harvard.edu.
2
Cardiovascular Epidemiology Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
3
Cardiovascular Epidemiology Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Pulmonary and Critical Care Unit, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.
4
Department of Geography and Environmental Development, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel.
5
Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.
6
NHLBI and Boston University's Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Massachusetts; Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.
7
Cardiovascular Engineering Inc., Norwood, Massachusetts.
8
NHLBI and Boston University's Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Massachusetts; Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts; Sections of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology and Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.
9
Cardiovascular Epidemiology Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.

Abstract

Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Impaired vascular responses may, in part, explain these findings, but the association of such long-term exposure with measures of both conduit artery and microvascular function has not been widely reported. We evaluated the association between residential proximity to a major roadway (primary or secondary highway) and spatially resolved average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and baseline brachial artery diameter and mean flow velocity, flow-mediated dilation%, and hyperemic flow velocity, in the Framingham Offspring and Third Generation Cohorts. We examined 5,112 participants (2,731 [53%] women, mean age 49 ± 14 years). Spatially resolved average PM2.5 was associated with lower flow-mediated dilation% and hyperemic flow velocity. An interquartile range difference in PM2.5 (1.99 μg/m(3)) was associated with -0.16% (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.27%, -0.05%) lower flow-mediated dilation% and -0.72 (95% CI -1.38, -0.06) cm/s lower hyperemic flow velocity%. Residential proximity to a major roadway was negatively associated with flow-mediated dilation%. Compared with living ≥400 m away, living <50 m from a major roadway was associated with 0.32% lower flow-mediated dilation (95% CI -0.58%, -0.06%), but results for hyperemic flow velocity had wide confidence intervals -0.68 cm/s (95% CI -2.29, 0.93). In conclusion, residential proximity to a major roadway and higher levels of spatially resolved estimates of PM2.5 at participant residences are associated with impaired conduit artery and microvascular function in this large community-based cohort of middle-aged and elderly adults.

PMID:
24793676
PMCID:
PMC4066389
DOI:
10.1016/j.amjcard.2014.03.048
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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