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Med J Islam Repub Iran. 2013 Aug;27(3):132-40.

Prevalence of cigarette smoking among Iranian women: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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MSc in Epidemiology , Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
PhD., MD, Research Center for Modeling in Health, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
MSc in Nursing, Neuroscience Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran



Smoking has physical, psychological, and social impacts on women's health and subsequentlythe community's health. Therefore, it is important to have an estimation of smoking among Iranian women.Since comprehensive data are not available in this respect, the authors performed a systematic review and metaanalyzedall high-quality studies in this field.


All available electronic papers were searched by certain keywords and were included in this studyaccording to the inclusion criteria regardless of the publication year. Furthermore, non-electronic resources includingthe final report of research projects, dissertations, unpublished papers (grey literature) and books publishedby the Iranian ministry of health were also evaluated in the study. The materials were assessed for theirquality and meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Considering the high degree of variability in many selectedstudies, we used random effect method for meta-analysis.


The highest and lowest rates of cigarette smoking among women were 10.5% and 0.04%, respectively.The prevalence rates of smoking were different in various subgroups; ranging from 0 to 0.4% in students, 1.1to 3.1% in adults, and 1.4 to 8.7% in all subgroups. According to the meta-analyses performed for the subgroups,the mean age of participants, performing the study in urban or rural areas, and the year of paper publicationwere major sources of heterogeneity.


The studies were highly different with regard to their findings, and it seems that there is an ageand time trend for the findings. Furthermore, the prevalence of smoking was different in various regions of thecountry.


Cigarette smoking; Meta-analysis; Prevalence; Smoking; Women


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