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J Clin Invest. 2014 Jun;124(6):2722-35. doi: 10.1172/JCI73066. Epub 2014 May 1.

MicroRNA-7a regulates pancreatic β cell function.

Abstract

Dysfunctional microRNA (miRNA) networks contribute to inappropriate responses following pathological stress and are the underlying cause of several disease conditions. In pancreatic β cells, miRNAs have been largely unstudied and little is known about how specific miRNAs regulate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) or impact the adaptation of β cell function to metabolic stress. In this study, we determined that miR-7 is a negative regulator of GSIS in β cells. Using Mir7a2 deficient mice, we revealed that miR-7a2 regulates β cell function by directly regulating genes that control late stages of insulin granule fusion with the plasma membrane and ternary SNARE complex activity. Transgenic mice overexpressing miR-7a in β cells developed diabetes due to impaired insulin secretion and β cell dedifferentiation. Interestingly, perturbation of miR-7a expression in β cells did not affect proliferation and apoptosis, indicating that miR-7 is dispensable for the maintenance of endocrine β cell mass. Furthermore, we found that miR-7a levels are decreased in obese/diabetic mouse models and human islets from obese and moderately diabetic individuals with compensated β cell function. Our results reveal an interconnecting miR-7 genomic circuit that regulates insulin granule exocytosis in pancreatic β cells and support a role for miR-7 in the adaptation of pancreatic β cell function in obesity and type 2 diabetes.

PMID:
24789908
PMCID:
PMC4038573
DOI:
10.1172/JCI73066
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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