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Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2014 May 1;4(5). pii: a017046. doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a017046.

Melanocytes and their diseases.

Author information

1
Medical, AbbVie GK, Mita, Tokyo 108-6302, Japan.

Abstract

Human melanocytes are distributed not only in the epidermis and in hair follicles but also in mucosa, cochlea (ear), iris (eye), and mesencephalon (brain) among other tissues. Melanocytes, which are derived from the neural crest, are unique in that they produce eu-/pheo-melanin pigments in unique membrane-bound organelles termed melanosomes, which can be divided into four stages depending on their degree of maturation. Pigmentation production is determined by three distinct elements: enzymes involved in melanin synthesis, proteins required for melanosome structure, and proteins required for their trafficking and distribution. Many genes are involved in regulating pigmentation at various levels, and mutations in many of them cause pigmentary disorders, which can be classified into three types: hyperpigmentation (including melasma), hypopigmentation (including oculocutaneous albinism [OCA]), and mixed hyper-/hypopigmentation (including dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria). We briefly review vitiligo as a representative of an acquired hypopigmentation disorder.

PMID:
24789876
PMCID:
PMC3996377
DOI:
10.1101/cshperspect.a017046
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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