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PLoS One. 2014 May 2;9(5):e96607. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096607. eCollection 2014.

Land-applied goat manure as a source of human Q-fever in the Netherlands, 2006-2010.

Author information

1
Alterra, Wageningen UR, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
2
Department of Sexual Health, Infectious Diseases, and Environmental Health, South Limburg Public Health Service, Geleen, The Netherlands; Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Public Health and Primary Care, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Abstract

Studies have shown a link between Q-fever positive farms (QFPFs) and community cases of human Q-fever. Our study is the first to investigate the potential role of contaminated land-applied manure in human Q-fever, based on a large set of nationwide notification and farm management data. Time between manure application and disease onset in geographically linked notified human cases coincided with the incubation period of Q-fever. Proximity of contaminated land parcels predicted human cases better than proximity of QFPFs (80% vs. 58%, 0-5 km in 2009). Incidence around QFPFs and contaminated land parcels decreased with distance, but not around non-contaminated land parcels. Incidence was higher around contaminated land parcels than non-contaminated land parcels (RR = [10],95%CI = [7], [1]-[14,2]). Our findings deliver evidence that, apart from QFPFs, land-applied contaminated manure may be another source of human Q-fever.

PMID:
24788538
PMCID:
PMC4008588
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0096607
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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