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Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol. 2014 Jun;60(2):135-49.

Technical tips and issues of biliary stenting, focusing on malignant hilar obstruction.

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Division of Gastroenterology Department of Internal Medicine Soonchunhyang University School of Medicine Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan and Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon, Republic of Korea -


In patients with inoperable hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCA), palliative endoscopic or percutaneous drainage provides benefits in terms of symptomatic improvement and quality of life. Endoscopic biliary stent placement is considered the gold standard, with metal stents preferred over plastic stents in patients with more than three months of life expectancy. However, the endoscopic management of advanced hilar obstruction is often more challenging and complex than distal malignant biliary obstructions. Recently, the Asia-Pacific working group on hepatobiliary cancers produced consensus recommendations on the use of endoscopic vs. percutaneous drainage and unilateral vs. bilateral drainage in the management of HCCA. However, these guidelines must be weighed against context-specific information, such as the volume of liver drainage required, life expectancy of the patient, and the available expertise. In this literature review, we describe the issues commonly encountered during endoscopic biliary stenting for malignant hilar obstruction and provide technical guidance to improve success rates and patient outcomes.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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