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Mol Plant. 2014 Aug;7(8):1267-1287. doi: 10.1093/mp/ssu049. Epub 2014 Apr 27.

Growth-defense tradeoffs in plants: a balancing act to optimize fitness.

Author information

1
Department of Energy Plant Research Laboratory, Michigan State University, MI 48824, USA; Cell and Molecular Biology Program, Michigan State University, MI 48824, USA.
2
Department of Energy Plant Research Laboratory, Michigan State University, MI 48824, USA.
3
Department of Energy Plant Research Laboratory, Michigan State University, MI 48824, USA; Cell and Molecular Biology Program, Michigan State University, MI 48824, USA; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, MI 48824, USA.
4
Department of Energy Plant Research Laboratory, Michigan State University, MI 48824, USA; Cell and Molecular Biology Program, Michigan State University, MI 48824, USA; Department of Plant Biology, Michigan State University, MI 48824, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute-Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, Michigan State University, MI 48933, USA. Electronic address: hes@msu.edu.

Abstract

Growth-defense tradeoffs are thought to occur in plants due to resource restrictions, which demand prioritization towards either growth or defense, depending on external and internal factors. These tradeoffs have profound implications in agriculture and natural ecosystems, as both processes are vital for plant survival, reproduction, and, ultimately, plant fitness. While many of the molecular mechanisms underlying growth and defense tradeoffs remain to be elucidated, hormone crosstalk has emerged as a major player in regulating tradeoffs needed to achieve a balance. In this review, we cover recent advances in understanding growth-defense tradeoffs in plants as well as what is known regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms. Specifically, we address evidence supporting the growth-defense tradeoff concept, as well as known interactions between defense signaling and growth signaling. Understanding the molecular basis of these tradeoffs in plants should provide a foundation for the development of breeding strategies that optimize the growth-defense balance to maximize crop yield to meet rising global food and biofuel demands.

KEYWORDS:

PAMP; jasmonate; plant growth.; plant hormone; plant immunity; salicylic acid

PMID:
24777989
PMCID:
PMC4168297
DOI:
10.1093/mp/ssu049
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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