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Horm Res Paediatr. 2014;81(6):363-78. doi: 10.1159/000357731. Epub 2014 Apr 26.

Vitamin D and its effects on glucose homeostasis, cardiovascular function and immune function.

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School of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Glasgow, UK.


In recent years there has been increasing interest in the non-skeletal effects of vitamin D. It has been suggested that vitamin D deficiency may influence the development of diabetes, cardiovascular dysfunction and autoimmune diseases. This review focuses on the current knowledge of the effects of vitamin D and its deficiency on cardiovascular function, glucose homeostasis and immune function, with a particular focus on children. Although, there is good evidence to show that there is an association between vitamin D deficiency and an abnormality of the above systems, there is little evidence to show that vitamin D supplementation leads to an improvement in function, especially in childhood.

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