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J Psychiatr Res. 2014 Aug;55:110-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2014.04.006. Epub 2014 Apr 16.

Relationships of maternal folate and vitamin B12 status during pregnancy with perinatal depression: The GUSTO study.

Author information

1
Clinical Nutrition Research Centre, Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, A*STAR, Singapore; Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, A*STAR, Singapore; Paediatrics, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore. Electronic address: mary_chong@sics.a-star.edu.sg.
2
Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, A*STAR, Singapore.
3
Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore.
4
Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore.
5
Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, A*STAR, Singapore; Psychological Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore.
6
Clinical Nutrition Research Centre, Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, A*STAR, Singapore; Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, A*STAR, Singapore; Paediatrics, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore.
7
KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore; McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
8
MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit and NIHR Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, University of Southampton; University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton, United Kingdom.
9
Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, A*STAR, Singapore; Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore.
10
Clinical Nutrition Research Centre, Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, A*STAR, Singapore; Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, A*STAR, Singapore; Liggins Institute, Auckland, New Zealand.
11
Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, A*STAR, Singapore; McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
12
KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore; Duke-National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Abstract

Studies in the general population have proposed links between nutrition and depression, but less is known about the perinatal period. Depletion of nutrient reserves throughout pregnancy and delayed postpartum repletion could increase the risk of perinatal depression. We examined the relationships of plasma folate and vitamin B12 concentrations during pregnancy with perinatal depression. At 26th-28th weeks of gestation, plasma folate and vitamin B12 were measured in women from the GUSTO mother-offspring cohort study in Singapore. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) during the same period and at 3-month postpartum. EPDS scores of ≥15 during pregnancy or ≥13 at postpartum were indicative of probable depression. Of 709 women, 7.2% (n = 51) were identified with probable antenatal depression and 10.4% (n = 74) with probable postnatal depression. Plasma folate concentrations were significantly lower in those with probable antenatal depression than those without (mean ± SD; 27.3 ± 13.8 vs 40.4 ± 36.5 nmol/L; p = 0.011). No difference in folate concentrations was observed in those with and without probable postnatal depression. In adjusted regression models, the likelihood of probable antenatal depression decreases by 0.69 for every unit variation (increase) in folate (OR = 0.69 per SD increase in folate; 95% CI: 0.52, 0.94). Plasma vitamin B12 concentrations were not associated with perinatal depression. Lower plasma folate status during pregnancy was associated with antenatal depression, but not with postnatal depression. Replication in other studies is needed to determine the direction of causality between low folate and antenatal depression.

CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY:

NCT01174875.

KEYWORDS:

Antenatal depression; Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale; Folate; Postnatal depression; Pregnancy diet; Vitamin B12

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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