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J Biol Chem. 1989 Oct 15;264(29):17532-43.

Characterization of the human Na,K-ATPase alpha 2 gene and identification of intragenic restriction fragment length polymorphisms.

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  • 1Department of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry, and Microbiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Ohio 45267-0524.


We have determined the structure of the gene that encodes the alpha 2 isoform of the human Na,K-ATPase. The gene contains 23 exons and spans approximately 25 kilobases. The amino acid sequence of the human alpha 2 isoform deduced from the genomic sequence exhibits 99% identity to the rat alpha 2 isoform. One of the nine amino acid differences between the human and rat sequences occurs at an amino acid position which is known to be involved in species differences in sensitivity of the alpha 1 isoform to cardiac glycosides. Approximately 1500 base pairs of sequence flanking the 5' end of the alpha 2 gene have been determined. This region contains numerous potential AP-1, AP-2, and NF-1-binding sites, a potential Sp1 recognition site, and several sequences that are similar to the glucocorticoid receptor-binding site. The transcription start site was mapped by primer extension and S1 nuclease protection analyses of RNA from human brain, skeletal muscle, and heart. Multiple transcription initiation sites are clustered between residues -104 to -99 relative to the translation initiation codon. A potential TATA box is located 29 base pairs upstream of the first transcription initiation site. Immediately 5' to the apparent TATA box is a 35-base pair polypurine.polypyrimidine tract containing an imperfect mirror repeat which resembles sequences that form triple-stranded structures. Two intragenic DNA probes which detect restriction fragment length polymorphisms associated with the alpha 2 gene have been identified. These probes will be useful in genetic linkage analyses designed to define the possible role of the Na,K-ATPase in certain hereditary disorders.

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